China's one child policy is a government-dictated limitation on the number of children certain groups of people in China can have without paying a fine. More correctly termed the "family planning policy," it is often misunderstood as forcing all families to only have one child or face serious consequences. In reality, it has many exceptions, and enforcement is lax in some areas. Regardless, it remains controversial, as it is seen as a restriction of reproductive rights, and does sometimes lead to abuses of illegally-born children.
Exceptions and Loopholes
Though many outside of China are under the impression that the one child policy applies to all Chinese citizens, this is not true. In fact, there are a number of exceptions, and the legislation applies to only about 35 percent of citizens, as it only applies to married, urban, ethnically Han couples. Ethnic minorities, those in rural areas, and parents without siblings themselves can all have more than one child without paying a fine, as can those who have a severely disabled child or one that dies. In some circumstances, exceptions are also made for those who lose their children to natural disasters.
Those in the 35% that is covered by the legislation often try to find ways of working around it. For instance, a couple may have two children back to back and register them as twins after the second one is born. Those who can afford it often go to Hong Kong or overseas to have a second child so that it will have a foreign passport. Others bribe officials for paperwork or to turn a blind eye. Those who are very wealthy sometimes have as many children as they like and just pay the fine. Some provincial governments discourage this, however, by making the fine a percentage of the parents' earnings rather than a flat fee.
China's one child policy was introduced in 1979 by leaders worried about the country's ability to support a rapidly increasing population. Though it has been very effective in keeping the country's population in check, it has had a number of negative social consequences. One of the most notable of these is a severe gender imbalance in China, where there is about 120 boys to every 100 girls. The changes in demographics caused by the policy may also make it difficult for older generations, since the imbalance of young people to old people makes it harder for children to care for their parents and grandparents.
Another problem is the existence of "black" children, or illegally born, unregistered children who are unable to receive healthcare or education. Forced sterilizations, female infanticide, and unwanted abortions do occur, but the frequency varies from area to area. An additional issue is the phenomenon of "little princes and princesses," which are sons and daughters who become extremely spoiled because their parents lavish all their attention on their one child.
China's population growth has slowed since the one child policy, leading some people to call it a success. How much the legislation actually contributed to the slowing of the population growth is debated, however. Since many urban areas in China are already overcrowded, a reduction in population growth may have helped keep some social problems becoming worse than they are. The lower population may have also kept the country from having a high unemployment rate, since there is not a surplus of workers. Additionally, the policy is seen by some as having helped China grow economically, and contributed to higher concentrations of resources per person.
Despite the exceptions and possible benefits, there is a lot of controversy surrounding this legislation both inside and outside of China. Many see it as an infringement on reproductive and personal rights. It is also sometimes seen as favoring the rich, since they are often more able to pay the fines. Additionally, many people decry the social effects of China's one child policy, especially the related child and mother abuse.