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What is the International Date Line?

Mary McMahon
By
Updated May 23, 2024
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The International Date Line (IDL), is an imaginary line that runs roughly along the 180° line of longitude, in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. International convention accepts the line as the location where one day is divided from the next, with the area in the Eastern Hemisphere one day ahead of the Western Hemisphere. This line is necessary to address certain oddities that occur during travel; people going all the way around the world perceive themselves either gaining or losing a day, depending on which direction they traveled in.

How Time Zones Work

In theory, the world could be divided up into 24 time zones, one for each hour of the day. Time zones are actually set by each country independently, however, and local time does not necessarily match these ideal standard time divisions. Ideally, the time zones are designed so that local noon falls when the sun is roughly overhead. Traveling west, a person would lose an hour for every 15° of longitude; while traveling east, towards the sun, he or she gains an hour.

Time zones are described in terms of their relationship to the prime meridian, which falls at 0° of longitude in Greenwich, England. If someone was 45° away from Greenwich, he or she would experience a three-hour time difference; 45° to the west would mean that the person was in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) -3, while someone 45° to the east would be in UTC +3. The International Date Line falls directly opposite the Prime Meridian in the time zones UTC +12 and UTC -12. Coordinated Universal Time was formerly known as Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), and is still sometimes written with this abbreviation.

How the IDL Location Was Chosen

The location of the International Date Line was chosen because it is in a relatively uninhabited area of the Pacific. The presence of inhabited areas — including Alaska, Russia, and a number of islands — mean that the line deviates in some areas. If the line was straight, the eastern most part of Russia would be a day behind the rest of the country, while a number of islands that are part of Alaska would be a day ahead of the state. This would likely result in confusion and administrative chaos.

Moving the Line

The line has been moved several times put a country on one or the other side. The islands of the Philippines, for example, were on the eastern side of the Date Line — with the Western Hemisphere — until the mid-19th century, despite sitting at about 120° E longitude. At the end of 2011, the islands of Samoa and Tokelau, which are very close to the line, shifted from the east to the west side of the line, rejoining the Eastern Hemisphere. Such changes are often made for economic reasons; Samoa and Tokelau shifted because of growing trade connections with Australia and New Zealand.

Crossing the Line

Traveling across the International Date Line can be confusing, especially for people taking a short trip, such as from Fiji to Hawaii. According to the clock, a traveler would end up arriving in Hawaii before he or she had left Fiji, because Fiji is a day ahead of Hawaii, and two hours behind — when it is noon in Hawaii, it is 10:00 AM in Fiji on the next day. Confusions of days and schedules do sometimes lead to mishaps, but most airlines and travel agencies keep the line in mind when informing travelers about schedules, expected arrival times, and itineraries.

CulturalWorld.org is dedicated to providing accurate and trustworthy information. We carefully select reputable sources and employ a rigorous fact-checking process to maintain the highest standards. To learn more about our commitment to accuracy, read our editorial process.
Mary McMahon
By Mary McMahon

Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a CulturalWorld.org researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors.

Discussion Comments
By anon997692 — On Feb 14, 2017

I am not sure, but I was told that Russia has several time zones, but they all go by Moscow time.

By mentirosa — On May 18, 2012

anon265487 - One could live in fantasy land or in real world. In fantasy land anything is possible. Fortunately, or unfortunately in the real world there are certain facts that we can not get around. It just is.

I am curious, how exactly would you make those changes? For example if in Vienna, Austria it is 12 noon, sun is shining, and in Honolulu, Hawaii it is midnight, dark, most people are asleep, how would you handle it? What date and time would it be in each place according to you?

By anon265487 — On May 01, 2012

We need to get rid of time zones and the date line. The earth is more connected than ever. The current system is a vestige from the days of the railroad. One world, one time, one date.

By anon154279 — On Feb 20, 2011

So, if I lived in hawaii, and fiji, and moved back and forth systematically, I would live longer than someone staying in one place.

By anon133596 — On Dec 11, 2010

Hey does anyone know, what time is it at the Prime Meridian when the sun is directly over the international date line?

By anon133456 — On Dec 10, 2010

The dateline was not chosen because it is a convenient location. It is 180 degrees from greenwich -- the opposite side of the earth from the Prime Meridian.

By anon50993 — On Nov 02, 2009

thanks!

By anon4512 — On Oct 21, 2007

now, where exactly is it located?

Mary McMahon
Mary McMahon

Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a...

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