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What is the Canadian System of Government?

Jessica Ellis
Updated May 23, 2024
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The Canadian government borrows from both the British and American models of government, to create an unusual system at the head of their country. Like America, it uses a system of checks and balances between the executive and legislative branches, yet its executive branch is headed by the monarch of Great Britain, currently Queen Elizabeth II. Including both democratic and parliamentary models, Canada’s government is truly unique to the needs of its people.

The head of Canada’s executive branch is the king or queen of the United Kingdom, entrusted with powers over the legislative and judicial branches. Historically, this position is honorary rather than enforced, though should they decide, the monarch could assert considerable power over Canada. As they are geographically quite far apart, the monarch appoints a Canadian governor-general to oversee the executive powers. Although the executive branch typically bows to the will of parliament and the constitution, it does so by tradition rather than law.

The governor-general appoints the prime minister, who is the head of the federal Canadian government. The prime minister is almost always chosen from whichever party holds a majority in the house of commons, however if no party holds a majority, they are usually appointed from the party with the most members. Though the prime minister cannot be removed from office, the House of Commons can pass an act of no confidence in the government, which will generally result in the resignation of the prime minister and his cabinet.

The legislative branch of the Canadian government is bicameral, meaning it has two houses of legislative power. The appointed house is called the Senate, and members are selected by the governor-general with the advice of the prime minister. The elected section of legislative government is called the House of Commons, and is chosen by democratic election procedures every five years. Though in theory both branches are roughly equal in power, the House of Commons generally wields the most power in the Canadian Government and introduces considerably more bills to Parliament.

Canada’s federal judicial system oversees all criminal law, as well as maintaining a Supreme Court appointed by the governor-general. Civil law is monitored using the principles of British common law, except in Quebec, where a French code is followed. The Supreme Court consists of nine judges, and is used as a “last resort” court system, when a case cannot be adequately completed by lower courts.

The constitution of the Canadian government was created in 1867 as an Act of the British parliament. In 1982, the constitution was amended to give Canada political independence from Great Britain, although the monarch still retains executive powers. Additionally, the 1982 amendment contained an outline of political rights and freedoms for citizens, similar to the ten-part Bill of Rights that begins the American constitution.

CulturalWorld.org is dedicated to providing accurate and trustworthy information. We carefully select reputable sources and employ a rigorous fact-checking process to maintain the highest standards. To learn more about our commitment to accuracy, read our editorial process.
Jessica Ellis
By Jessica Ellis
With a B.A. in theater from UCLA and a graduate degree in screenwriting from the American Film Institute, Jessica Ellis brings a unique perspective to her work as a writer for CulturalWorld.org. While passionate about drama and film, Jessica enjoys learning and writing about a wide range of topics, creating content that is both informative and engaging for readers.
Discussion Comments
By anon293859 — On Sep 28, 2012

Canada is a beautiful and a lovely country. Please stay away from elitism and always be one with humanity and the generosity that characterizes your people, and the upholding of true justice and freedom of speech.

Canada is one country that respects nature, hence the wonderful upkeep of its terrific landscape and environment.

By GigaGold — On Feb 09, 2011


This is true that the French Canadians do not appreciate their position, but they probably feel little allegiance to France as well, seeing as how the French from France tend to look down on the French Canadians, who speak a different dialect. Many French Canadians have moved to New England and other areas of the US. Cajun culture moved to Louisiana because they were persecuted by their English Canadian neighbors.

By BioNerd — On Feb 08, 2011

The French in Quebec and Ontario must object strongly to being placed under the reign of an English monarch. This hearkens back to the time when England conquered France. The history of bitter religious and political rivalry among the English, Spanish, and French, in the New World, is a long and bloody story of English dominance.

Jessica Ellis
Jessica Ellis
With a B.A. in theater from UCLA and a graduate degree in screenwriting from the American Film Institute, Jessica Ellis...
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