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What is Joss Paper?

Joss paper, also known as spirit or ghost money, is a symbolic offering burned in traditional Chinese rituals to honor ancestors and deities, ensuring their well-being in the afterlife. This ancient practice bridges the mortal world with the spiritual, reflecting deep respect for past generations. Curious about how these ethereal banknotes connect the living to the celestial? Let's explore this sacred tradition further.
Mary McMahon
Mary McMahon
Mary McMahon
Mary McMahon

Joss paper is paper printed with various representations of earthly goods, such as money, which is burned during ceremonies meant to honor ancestors or deities in some parts of Asia. Paper designed to represent money is the most common form, although it can also represent houses, cars, credit cards, and an assortment of other things. It is typically made of white bamboo or rice paper, and may be decorated with seals or stamps.

By tradition, people burn joss paper as an offering to deities, and to provide their deceased relatives with things they might need in the afterlife. This practice is not performed in all parts of Asia; some Buddhists, for example, find the thought of sending representations of earthly goods to their relatives inappropriate. It is common enough, however, that this type of paper is often found in Asian markets, and street vendors often sell it near temples.

Joss paper is often made of rice paper.
Joss paper is often made of rice paper.

Joss paper is also called ghost or spirit money, and sometimes as "hell bank notes." In Asia, "hell" doesn't carry quite the same connotations that it does for Westerners; it simply refers to the afterlife, where people are judged. Hell bank notes are sent to relatives by burning so that they can bribe the king of hell to escape early, and so that they can spend lavishly in the afterlife. These papers are often quite elaborate, and they typically feature a portrait of the Jade Emperor, who rules the afterlife.

In addition to burning joss paper, people typically burn incense and provide offerings of food during ceremonies held to honor the dead and various deities. The paper may be folded into specific shapes which are meant to bring on good luck, and people typically burn lavish amounts to ensure that the offering is well received. Depending on the region, the paper may be decorated with seals, stamps, pieces of contrasting paper, engraved designs, or other motifs. Folding joss paper is often an important part of the ceremony, as it distinguishes the paper from actual money — burning money is considered to be unlucky in Asian cultures.

A number of superstitions surround joss paper in Asian society. As a general rule, it should never be given to a living person, because this is viewed as highly offensive. It is also kept concealed when it is stored at home, because it is supposed to bring down bad luck when left on display. Joss paper should never be used for anything other than its intended purpose, and while Westerners may be tempted to use it for decorating, they should be aware that Asian guests may be offended or feel uncomfortable when it is on display, as it is associated with death.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is joss paper and what is its cultural significance?

Joss paper, also known as ghost or spirit money, is a type of paper made to resemble money and is traditionally burned in various Asian cultures as an offering to ancestors, deities, or the deceased. The practice holds significant cultural importance, symbolizing respect and remembrance. It is believed that burning joss paper sends the paper to the spiritual world, providing the spirits with the currency they need to have a comfortable afterlife.

How is joss paper used in religious or spiritual ceremonies?

In religious or spiritual ceremonies, joss paper is used predominantly in rituals to honor ancestors or during festivals like the Qingming Festival and the Hungry Ghost Festival. Participants burn joss paper at gravesites, temples, or home altars, often accompanied by incense and prayer. The act is a way to ensure that ancestors or spirits are well-cared for in the afterlife and to seek their blessings and protection.

Are there different types of joss paper, and what do they represent?

Yes, there are various types of joss paper, each with its own representation. Traditional joss paper is made to resemble money, including gold and silver ingots, symbolizing wealth and prosperity. Other forms include paper replicas of daily items like clothes, cars, and houses, which are burned to provide these comforts to the deceased in the afterlife. Some joss papers are also inscribed with seals or stamps that represent clearing of debts or bringing good fortune.

Is the use of joss paper environmentally friendly?

The traditional practice of burning joss paper has raised environmental concerns due to the smoke and waste generated. However, there are eco-friendly alternatives being developed, such as joss paper made from recycled materials or those that produce less smoke. Some communities are also adopting digital or symbolic offerings to reduce the environmental impact while preserving cultural traditions.

Can anyone use joss paper, or is it restricted to certain cultures?

While joss paper is rooted in Asian cultures, particularly Chinese, Vietnamese, and Malaysian communities, it is not restricted to these groups. Anyone with a respectful interest in the practice can use joss paper. However, it is important to understand the cultural significance and proper usage to avoid unintentional disrespect. Learning from someone within the culture or participating in community events can be a good way to start.

Mary McMahon
Mary McMahon

Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a CulturalWorld researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors.

Learn more...
Mary McMahon
Mary McMahon

Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a CulturalWorld researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors.

Learn more...

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Discussion Comments


I've been given some joss paper to put up in my house as decoration. I am uncomfortable doing this. How can I "get rid" of the joss paper so as not to offend spirits or bring bad luck upon me and my home? Can I return it to my friend, or will this bring bad luck to them?


When I was in Hong Kong, I saw a set that you could burn for a kid that had school supplies, toys, and clothes for the child.

Oh, and if you don't expect it, seeing somebody hurling big piles of money into a fire pit will definitely throw you off. The first time I saw someone doing it I had no idea that the money was fake, so I was completely bewildered.

It really is a very thoughtful tradition, though, and a good way to feel connected to your loved ones.


Did you know that many Asian people don't only burn the money -- they've got whole sets of things made out of joss paper to burn.

Seriously, everything you could think of, from three piece suits to packs of cigarettes to sushi.

A lot of times you can get things in sets; for instance, a set to burn for a woman might have two or three dresses, some jewelry, a purse, and a makeup compact -- all made out of paper, of course.

They even have houses, and whole dining sets, for the truly ambitious. What's really creepy though, is that sometimes they have little people that you can burn too, so your loved ones can have servants in the afterlife. I'm still not quite sure how I feel about that...


Joss paper is so cool -- but you're right, people do get really uncomfortable around it. It's actually really beautiful, what with all the designs and engravings, and a lot of times joss paper money has all kinds of different colors, even gold on it.

It is so beautiful that when I first saw it, I wanted to use it as stationery -- but then I thought about how that would probably creep out everybody, getting letters on "hell money".

Too really is very beautiful.

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    • Joss paper is often made of rice paper.
      By: michaklootwijk
      Joss paper is often made of rice paper.