Do Any Countries Have More than One President?

Although many countries have a president and a prime minister, Bosnia-Herzegovina has three presidents at the same time. The Bosnian-Herzegovinan presidency consists of three members, one Bosnian, one Croat and one Serb, and they serve together for four years. The presidents are all elected by direct popular vote, with the Bosnian and Croatian presidents elected from the Federation of Bosnia-Herzegovina and the Serbian president chosen from the Republika Srpska, the other political entity in Bosnia-Herzegonia. These three presidents take turns serving as the chairman of the presidency in eight-month rotations, during which time the chairman serves the head of state. In addition to all the presidents, both Bosnia-Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska also have a vice president and a prime minister.

More about collective presidencies:

  • A few other countries are led collectively, including Switzerland, which has a seven-member federal council led by a president, and San Marino, which has two captains regent that serve together.

  • The Bosnian-Herzegovinan presidents are eligible for second terms, but if they serve a second term, they become ineligible to run for four years.

  • Several ancient governments were led by multiple heads of state as well, including the Roman Republic, which was led by two consuls.
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Discussion Comments


Not Bosnian but Bosniak. That’s an important distinction. Bosnian is a regional term. Bosnian Muslims call themselves Bosniaks since 1992 to confuse foreigners into thinking they are the native people of Bosnia.

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